Bunaken National Park is very representative of Indonesian tropical water ecosystems, consisting of seagrass plain, coral reef, and land/coastal ecosystems.
The northern part of the Park area covers the islands of Bunaken, Manado Tua, Montehage, Siladen, Nain and Nain Kecil, and part of the Tanjung Pisok coastal area. The southern part of the Park covers part of the Tanjung Kelapa coast.
On land, these islands are rich in species of palm, sagu, woka, silar and coconut. Among the animal species that live on the land and the beaches are black-crested macaques (Macaca nigra nigra), Timor deer (Cervus timorensis russa), and bear-cuscus (Ailurops ursinus ursinus).
The mangrove forest of the Park contains, among others, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia sp., Lumnitzera sp., and Bruguiera sp. This forest is also rich in species of crab, lobster, mollusc, and sea birds such as gulls, herons, sea doves, and storks.
The seaweed species that can be found here include Caulerpa sp., Halimeda spp., and Padina spp., while the dominant seagrasses, in particular in the islands of Montehage and Nain, are Thalassia hemprichii, Enhallus acoroides, and Thalassodendron ciliatum.
Thirteen species of coral have been recorded in the waters of the Park, dominated by fringing reef coral and barrier reef coral. An interesting feature is the 25-50 metre vertical coral wall which is inhabited by 13 coral genus.
About 91 species of fish live in the waters of the Park, among them being the emperor angelfish (Pomacanthus imperator), almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana), spotted seahorse (Hippocampus kuda), yellowstripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira), four saddle rock cod (Ephinephelus spilotoceps), pinkish basslet (Pseudanthias hypselosoma), two-lined monocle bream (Scolopsis bilineatus), etc.; and species of mollusc such as the great clam (Tridacna gigas), horned helmet (Cassis cornuta), pearly-chambered nautili (Nautilus pompillius), and ascidians.
There are five islands in the Park where visitors can enjoy diving, snorkelling and marine tours.
Cultural attractions outside the Park include the Anniversary of Manado in July and Menulude in January, in Manado.
How to Reach the Park
The Park can be reached from Manado harbour, the Nusantara Diving Centre (NDC) Marina in Molas sub-district, and the Blue Banter Marina. From Manado harbour by motor boat to Siladen Island takes 20 minutes; to Bunaken Island, 30 minutes; to Montehage Island, 50 minutes; and to Nain Island, 60 minutes. From Blue Banter Marina heading to the recreation area on Bunaken takes 10-15 minutes by cabin cruiser. From the NDC harbour to the dive sites off Bunaken takes 20 minutes by speedboat.
Best time of year to visit is in May to August.
Total area 89,065 hectares
Location in Regency of Minahasa and Municipality of Manado (Province of North Sulawesi)
Temperature 26° – 31° C
Rainfall 2,500 – 3,500 mm/year (on average)
Altitude 0 – 800 m asl.
Salinity 33 – 35 0/00
Weather clearness 10 – 30 m
Low-tide 2.5 m (on average)
Rainy season November to February
Dry season March to October
Geographical location 124°39′ – 124°35′ E; 1°35′ – 1°49′ N
Office: Jl. Raya Molas, Kotak Pos 1202
Manado 95242, North Sulawesi
Tel. : +62-431-859022